Determination of conversion factors for pine and spruce logs in stacks

Abstract
The aim of this paper was to determine conversion factors for stacked pine and spruce logs with a length between 3 and 6 meters. To this end, we measured stacks and their logs for a total of 3,322.12 steres of pine logs and 1,468.46 steres of spruce logs. The conversion factors obtained in this work for pine logs of varying length negatively correlate with log length. However, statistically significant (p <0.05) differences were only found between the longest logs and logs 3 m as well as 4 m in length. This may be due to various factors (mainly curvature, presence of buttresses on butt logs, tapering) influencing the stacking process for logs of increasing length. For logs with a length of 3, 4 and 5 meters, the average value of the conversion factor increased with the log thickness class, although this dependence is not statistically significant. In the case of spruce raw material, the obtained conversion factors are similar to values determined in previous studies. There was no significant correlation between the length of the log and its average diameter. A prerequisite for using conversion factors for large-sized logs is accurate stacking where special attention needs to be paid to parallel stacking of individual logs, aligning their foreheads to be flush and forming a stack so that its top plane is parallel to the ground.
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Citation
Jodłowski, K., & Witkowska, J. (2019). Determination of conversion factors for pine and spruce logs in stacks, Forest Research Papers, 80(3), 181-187. doi: https://doi.org/10.2478/frp-2019-0016
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