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    Miejska gospodarka wodna w kontekście współczesnych wyzwań globalnych i lokalnych. Przykład Krakowa i Wrocławia w kontekście wyników rankingu Water City Ind
    (Akademia Nauk Stosowanych w Nowym Sączu, 2022) Kudłacz, Michał; Węgrzyn, Benedykt; Kutek, Krzysztof; Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Krakowie
    Autorzy artykułu poruszają istotne kwestie związane z miejską polityką wodną na przykładzie Krakowa i Wrocławia – dwóch ważnych metropolii w Polsce. Miejska polityka wodna jest przedstawiana w relacji do polityk publicznych, gospodarowania zasobami wodnymi oraz w aspekcie ekonomicznych i społecznych konsekwencji podejmowania określonych działań w zakresie polityki przestrzennej miasta. Podstawą do formułowania autorskich wniosków są badania przeprowadzone w ramach Water City Index – pierwszego polskiego rankingu analizującego efektywność gospodarowania zasobami wodny w polskich miastach. Ranking ten był opracowywany corocznie w latach 2019-2021 przy użyciu podobnej metodologii ilościowej. Podstawą do powstania niniejszego artykułu stały się prace nad wskaźnikami ilościowymi dla „indeksu miast wodnych”. Wszystko to umożliwiło ocenę efektywności gospodarowania zasobami wodnymi w Krakowie i Wrocławiu.
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    The predicate K of the current mathematical knowledge non-trivially extends computability theory
    (Elsevier, 2024-06-11) Tyszka, Apoloniusz; Hugo Kołłątaj University
    K denotes both the knowledge predicate satisfied by every currently known theorem and the finite set of all currently known theorems. The set K is time-dependent and publicly available. Any theorem of any mathematician from past or present forever belongs to K. We prove the following Statement 1: there is a limit-computable function β:N→N of unknown computability which eventually dominates every function δ:N→N with a single-fold Diophantine representation. Statement 1 holds when, for every n∈N, β(n) is the smallest b∈N such that if a system of equations S⊆{1=x_k, x_i+x_j=x_k, x_i \cdot x_j=x_k: i,j,k∈{0,...,n}} has a unique solution in N^{n+1}, then this solution belongs to {0,...,b}^{n+1}. Statement 1 does not follow from any widely known mathematical theorem. Ignoring the epistemic condition in Statement 1, Statement 1 is implied by the following result of Royer and Case: There is a limit-computable function β_1:N→N which eventually dominates every computable function δ_1:N→N. The proof of Statement 1 shows that Statement 1 follows from some mathematical theorem and the following conjunction: ((The function β is computable)∉K)∧((The function β is uncomputable)∉K).
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    Korea Północna. Modelowy przykład współczesnego państwa totalitarnego
    (Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego, 2024-06-14) Chustecki, Jakub; Uniwersytet Warszawski
    Totalitarianism in its classical form represents a general model of state functioning. Depending on the perspective adopted, the authors draw attention to its two basic dimensions: socio-anthropological and systemic, i.e. institutional. Adopting an institutional perspective necessitates a comprehensive analysis of the individual elements of the system, i.e. the dominant, all-encompassing ideology, the mass monoparty, the system of terror, the monopoly on weapons and violence, the centrally controlled economy or the state monopoly on communication, because only if all the elements mentioned are present we can call the system totalitarian. These features were noted by researchers of non-democratic regimes as early as the 1950s on the basis of observations of regimes such as the Third Reich or the USSR. It would seem that with the post-war dynamic social and technological development, concepts previously used to describe social phenomena (including the concept of totalitarianism) would lose their original meaning. However, an analysis of the political system of North Korea allows one to pose the thesis that the so-called post-totalitarian states described today exist alongside totalitarian states in the classical sense of the term. The purpose of this paper is to portray the political system of the DPRK and to try to answer the question of whether we can describe North Korea as a model totalitarian state. The status of North Korea in the literature varies widely. Some researchers describe it as an authoritarian state, others as a totalitarian state, and some even call it a post-totalitarian one. The analysis of the individual elements of North Korea’s political system from the point of view of their totalitarian character also makes it possible to answer an extremely important question for researchers of non-democratic states: does totalitarianism have a clearly defined chronological framework or is it an ahistorical and universal concept? As a result of the analysis, it has been proven that North Korea fulfils all the prerequisites indicated by Carl Friedrich and Zbigniew Brzezinski, as well as those articulated by Hannah Arendt, Alexander Hertz or Roger Scruton necessary to qualify it as a model totalitarian state. Significantly, since the mid-twentieth century, North Korea has had an official Juche (juche) ideology that defines all aspects of state and society. There is also a mass party centred around a leader, a large-scale system of terror, both institutional (e.g. political police, concentration camps) and non-institutional (e.g. a system of neighbourhood control or hunger strikes). The party elite has total control over news broadcasting, with only the available public media saturated with government propaganda. The Korean Labour Party also has undivided power over the Korean military and the economy (which, incidentally, is part of the official Juche ideology). North Korea thus fulfils all the prerequisites to be considered a modern totalitarian state.
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    Differentiation of Profitability of Traditional and Innovative Potatoes Cultivation in Poland
    (Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, 2023-12-22) Maciejczak, Mariusz; Filipiak, Tadeusz; Gołębiewska, Barbara; Urbanowicz, Janusz; Osowski, Jerzy; Treder, Krzysztof; Warsaw University of Life Sciences; Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute National Research Institute
    The aim of the research was to determine the costs and profitability of traditional and innovative potatoes cultivation in Poland. The experimental field trials of selected potato varieties in various variants were carried out between 2021 and 2022. The applied variants of experiments included potatoes cultivation according to traditional and innovative methods, i.e. in commercial conditions (high intensity of inputs and costs, including fertilization with mineral fertilizers and synthetic plant protection products) and in the absence of fertilization and plant protection, or only with the use of interaction with beneficial microorganisms. For economic calculations, there were applied methods of profitability of potatoes production for the evaluation of various production variants, calculation of production costs and assessment of production profit. The research material consisted of the results of field experiments carried out as part of the international PotatoMETAbiome project for 11 potato varieties and six variants of the experiment in fields located in the north of Poland. Based on the research, it was found that the average potatoes production costs in 2021 and 2022 decreased for traditional variants and increased for innovative variants. In 2021, the lowest production costs were for the variant without fertilization and plant protection products and innovative variants. In turn, in 2022, the lowest production costs were for traditional variants, i.e., with fertilization and protection, and without fertilization with protection, as well as with fertilization and without chemical protection, and without fertilization and without chemical protection. In all years under consideration and for all variants, potatoes cultivation was profitable. The potatoes production profitability ratios during the years under analysis decreased for innovative variants, while they increased for variants with intensive production. It was found that an innovative strategy of potatoes production with the use of beneficial microorganisms may be an economically justified alternative to changing production, market, and political conditions.
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    Changes in Production Factor Relations and Their Determinants in Agriculture in Selected European Union Countries
    (Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, 2023-12-22) Floriańczyk, Zbigniew; Rembisz, Włodzimierz; Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy
    The article examines trends in changes in relations among three production factors (land, labor, and capital) in agriculture in the selected European Union countries. For the purpose, the assumptions regarding the direction and the mechanism of changes in the relations were verified empirically. It was assumed that the basis of the mechanism is the ratio of changes in factor productivity to changes in the prices (remuneration) of these factors. Trends in production factors were verified empirically using agricultural economic accounts as well as statistics on labor and land inputs in agriculture collected by Eurostat. The trends in changes in the relations among production factors correspond to the capitalintensive stage of growth in agriculture. A strong trend of decline in the labor factor in agriculture was demonstrated along with the reduction of land in the EU agriculture. The changes were accompanied by diversified involvement of the capital factor in agriculture. With a constant increase in the volume of agricultural production, there is a corresponding increase in the productivity of the production factors. The increase is the smallest in the case of the capital factor, because it performs not only a growth function, but also is a substitute for the decline in other factors. An increased productivity of the production factors is related to an increase in their remuneration reflected by an increase in their prices. The deviations from capital-intensive growth in agriculture observed in the empirical study indicate other factors influencing the remuneration of production factors in agriculture.