Etnonimy i profesjonimy. Grupy Cyganów na Bałkanach

Abstract
The paper aims to reveal the processes, through which the ethnonyms of the separate Gypsy groups appear. In this analysis are taken account for the two forms of existing of the ethnonyms as – endonyms (in the community itself) and exonyms (in front of the other Gypsy groups and the macro-society as a whole) – and the complex forms of correlation between them. Particular attention is turned to the cases, characteristic mainly for the Balkans (and the Gypsy groups who migrated from there in 19th–20th cc.), among who the ethnonyms are formed on the base of the carried out economic activities, characteristic for a given Gypsy group (the so-called proffesionyms), for instance Kalajdžii, Demirdžii, Kelderari, Košničari/Sepetčii and similar others. Based on material, gathered from different Gypsy groups on the Balkans, and from groups, migrated from there, the different forms of functioning of endo- and exonyms will be presented, i.e. it is analyzed in what cases which from the endo- or exonyms are used and why. This reveal also the circumstances in which the need for specific group appellation appear and vice versa in which circumstances the need for the group appellation disappear, thus we will be able to throw light on the cases in which particular Gypsy group are distinguished from others through clear expressed group etnonym and in which they are describing themselves only as “Roma”. During the analysis of the complex and diverse variations of the correlations between the ethnonyms and professionyms of different Gypsy groups, one very important fact cannot escape attention. The professionyms (in many cases turned to be the only available for the group ethnonyms) fully (or almost fully, having in mind some specific cases) are formed on the base of the languages and the grammatical forms of the macro-society, in which the Gypsies live. Actually, summarizing, the professionyms, together with family-kin and territory-state characteristics, appear to be the most important criteria, on which the ethnonyms are formed (and in both of their forms of existence – as endonyms and exonyms) of the different Gypsy groups around the world.

E artiklosqëri res si te sikavel duśles o procèso, sar iklǒn e ververe rromane grupenqëre/endajenqëre. Kadaja analìza lel angl-i jakh o duj fòrme e etnikonenqëre, viz endonìmǎ (maśkar endaněnθe) thaj ekzonìmǎ (rakerindor avere Rromençar aj vi gaŴençar) thaj vi i komplèkso korelàcie maśkar lenθe. Lel pes sàma xurdikanes pe duj sure, save si xarakteristìko and-o Balkàno (thaj rromane endaja save e Balkanosθar gele tar avri and-o 19-to thaj 20-to śeliberś); maśkar lenθe o etnikònǎ sas kerdine p-i bàza e profesiaqëri, savi sas xarakteristìko jekhe dine rromane endajaqe (so phenel pes vi prfesionìmǎ), misalǎqe KalajŴìe, DemirŴìe, Kelderàra, Kośnicàra/SepeŴìe thaj avera miazutne. P-i bàza e materialesqëri, so sas kidime maśkar verver rromane endaja and-o Balkàno thaj and-i emigràcia, o artìklo mothovel o verver ćhand sar funkcionuin o endonìmǎ thaj ekzonìmǎ, viz del jekh analìza te dikhas anda save sure thaj sosqe jone si labǎrde. Kadava sikavel vi kana xakǎrel pes so kampel jekh specifìko anav vaś-jekh endaj thaj, mamujal, kana kadava anav bisterdǒl. Dudǎrel kadǎ o sure kana jekh konkrèto endaj ulavdǒl e averenθar nais jekhe etnikonesqe (endajonimesqe) thaj kana si akharde sadaj „Rroma”. Kana analizuis o komplèkso variàcie e korelacienqëre maśkar-o etnikònǎ thaj profesionìmǎ e ververe rromane endajenqëre, dikhas but duśles so lenqëre profesionìmǎ (thaj butivar naj len avera endaìtka anava) si kerdine paśti savaxt p-i bàza e gaŴikane ćhiběnqëri aj gramatikane formenqëri. Rakerindor xarnes, o profesionìmǎ, khetane e irritkone thaj themitkone anavençar, si o vasneder kritèrǎ pe save si kerdine o endaìtka anava (anda sol duj lenqëre fòrme: endonìmǎ aj ekzonìmǎ) e ververe rromane grupenqëre anda sa o sundal.
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Citation
Elena Marushiakova, Vesselin Popov, Etnonimy i profesjonimy. Grupy Cyganów na Bałkanach, "Studia Romologica", 2009, nr 2, s. 177-198.
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