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    Wsparcie konkurencyjności przedsiębiorstw przemysłu spożywczego w Polsce. Ocena roli środków inwestycyjnych Programu Rozwoju Obszarów Wiejskich na lata 2014–2020
    (Biuro Ekspertyz i Oceny Skutków Regulacji Kancelarii Sejmu, 2024-05-22) Kosior, Katarzyna; Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej – Państwowy Instytut Badawczy
    The article examines the role of the Rural Development Programme (RDP) 2014–2020 investment funds in shaping the capabilities of the Polish agri-food processing industry to enhance its competitive advantages under new conditions dictated by the necessity of transitioning towards more sustainable production systems. The research is based on data from 783 agri-food processing enterprises that benefited from the 2014–2020 RDP support. The scope and directions of support offered during the previous programming period, public funding allocated to enterprises within individual sectors, strategies and investment priorities of the entities covered by the support, as well as the planned and achieved results across crucial areas have been scrutinised. The findings indicate that the RDP funds were effective in enhancing short-term competitiveness, primarily through modernising equipment and updating machine parks, which in turn expanded production potential. However, the role of these funds in facilitating the transition from traditional competitive strategies to more sustainable and innovative approaches was not as profound as required. Insufficient efforts were directed towards building a robust foundation to address growing climate, environmental, and socio-economic challenges, which is crucial for developing new competitive edges. Furthermore, in the group of enterprises studied, no material actions or investments were identified that would prepare companies for bolstering competitiveness through digital transformation. This suggests a pressing need for revisions in public support programmes designed for the agri-food sector enterprises in Poland.
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    Exploring the synergy of technical and social sciences: an overview of professor Joanicjusz Nazarko’s 45-year scientific journey
    (Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, 2024-05-24) Wilczewska, Martyna; Bokun, Katarzyna; Ginevičius, Romualdas; Bialystok University of Technology, Poland; Glosel sp. z o.o. sp. k., Białystok, Poland; Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Lithuania
    This article presents Professor Joanicjusz Nazarko’s outstanding achievements in research, scientific cooperation, teaching and organizational work, in celebration of the 45th jubilee of his scientific work. Over the years, Professor Nazarko has contributed significantly to the development of technical and social sciences in Poland. He authored more than 300 publications, which constitutes a substantial knowledge base on its own. Using bibliometric and statistical methods and techniques, we present an overview of Professor’s most important scientific achievements and major works. We also highlight his efforts to establish a national and international network for scientific cooperation. Lastly, we present his didactic successes. This jubilee serves as the opportunity to recognize and honour Professor Joanicjusz Nazarko’s significant contribution to the development of science in Poland.
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    Konkurencyjność sektora żywnościowego Polski na rynkach zagranicznych w latach 2018–2022
    (Biuro Ekspertyz i Oceny Skutków Regulacji Kancelarii Sejmu, 2024-05-22) Szczepaniak, Iwona; Juchniewicz, Małgorzata; Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej – Państwowy Instytut Badawczy; Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski
    The research on competitiveness, derived from the theory of international exchange, is becoming increasingly important under the current conditions of internationalisation, integration and globalisation processes. Competitiveness, therefore, is understood as the ability to cope with international competition, manifesting itself by the acceptance of a country’s products by customers on foreign markets. Thus, it is defined as a country’s ability to maintain or increase market shares. A similar approach can also be used while analysing the food sector competitiveness. The aim of the article is to assess the competitiveness of the Polish food sector on foreign markets in a dynamic approach, i.e., in the years 2018–2022. The changes in the basic trade flows, i.e., goods export, import and trade balance, as well as their geographical structure, together with the external conditions affecting the Polish food trade are discussed in the article. The study also contains an assessment of the Polish food sector competitiveness on the world market, carried out on the basis of two competitiveness indicators, i.e., the index of revealed comparative advantages in exports according to B. Balassa (RCA) and the Lafay export-import relations index (LFI). Both indicators testify to the inter-industry specialisation in trade by a given group of products. The comparative advantages and specialisation level of the production and export of the analysed products are expressed, among others, by the growing trade surplus of the products under research. The analysis was carried out on the level of HS (Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System) codes. The statistical data, analysed in the article, were taken from the World Integrated Trade Solutions (WITS-Comtrade) database and Statistics Poland, as well as the literature sources on the subject. The perspectives for the successful development of the food products trade, while maintaining Poland’s competitiveness in the said sector under the changing external conditions, were presented in the final part of the text.
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    Husserl’s concept of transcendental consciousness and the problem of AI consciousness
    (Springer Nature, 2024-05-22) Orbik, Zbigniew; Silesian University of Technology
    Edmund Husserl, the founder of phenomenological philosophy, developed the concept of the so-called pure transcendental consciousness. The author of the article asks whether the concept of consciousness understood this way can constitute a model for AI consciousness. It should be remembered that transcendental consciousness is the result of the use of the phenomenological method, the essence of which is referring to experience (“back to things themselves”). Therefore, one can legitimately ask whether the consciousness that AI can achieve can possess the characteristics attributed by Husserl to pure transcendental consciousness. The answer to such questions seems to be negative because AI, as created by humans, can only operate in the field of phenomena. Human intelligence, however, is capable of operating at the ontological level. In the face of difficulties in understanding the phenomenon of consciousness on a scientific basis, the question arises about the possibility of using the phenomenological concept of consciousness developed by Husserl as a starting point in analyzes aimed at answering the question about AI consciousness (The aim of the article is not to discuss in detail the contemporary state of research on consciousness. Therefore, many results currently achieved mainly in the field of neuroscience are omitted. It is just about indicating the possible application of Husserl’s transcendental concept of consciousness in research on AI consciousness).
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    Assembling a household in the Middle Nile Valley (Old Dongola, Sudan) in the 16th–17th centuries
    (Sage Journals, 2023-05-04) Wyżgoł, Maciej; Deptuła, Agata; Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology, University of Warsaw
    Old Dongola, with a history reaching back to the 5th century AD, was originally the capital of Makuria, one of the three medieval Nubian kingdoms. After the collapse of Makuria, its capital city saw migratory movements and political changes that resulted in the emergence of new power relations. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the city was the seat of a local ruler subordinate to the Funj Sultanate. New communities that emerged in this setting inhabited the city until the colonial era. This paper examines the ways in which Funj-period households, as fundamental social units in Old Dongola, were mutually constitutive with houses, engaging with their spatiality and materiality through social practices. The authors investigate domestic labour, which was an essential factor in the negotiation of social differences and identities within the household. Differences in building techniques are analysed to compare various ways in which dwellers engaged with houses and to assess their implications for social differentiation within the city.