Analysis of the duration of basic logging operations performed using a chainsaw

Abstract
Motor-manual machinery, i.e. chainsaws, is still commonly used for timber harvesting in Poland, especially in northern-east part of the country. The main goal of this research was to analyze the duration of operations such as felling, delimbing and bucking of the main tree species in Augustów Primeval Forest. Our aim was also to estimate the quantity of fuel necessary to perform these operations as well as the CO2 emission. Working's day activity study was selected as a method of time measurement. Data was collected from 8 clear-cuts during the logging of 327 m3 of timber. On average, the most time-consuming operation was delimbing (26% of total time). Felling took 15% and bucking 18% of total time. Breaks took up a significant proportion of time (10% of total time), as well as technical maintenance, change of workplace and preparation of work-place that each took up 9%. The average exploitation productivity of lumberjacks reached 7.5 m3 h-1 and fuel consumption was 0.14 l m-3. Results on the duration of operational times confirm earlier research, however due to final felling conditions and large dimensions of trees fuel consumption and emissions of CO2 were smaller than those given in the existing literature. The most time-consuming operation for coniferous was delimbing (Scots pine 29%, Norway spruce 36% of working time) and for the broadleaves it was bucking (silver birch 27%, black alder 28% of working time). Workers' operational productivity depended on tree species and was the greatest in the case of Scots pine (15.2 m3 h-1) and the smallest in the case of Norway spruce (6.2 m3 h-1). Operational productivity was strongly correlated with the volume and the trunk diameter.
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