Unknown Retina Studies in 19th Century Poland

Abstract
Introduction: Despite political restriction of higher education and scholarly activity in 19th C. Poland, contributions by Polish ophthalmologists were made. Methods: This historical study is based on analysis of original 19th century ophthalmologic texts and other literature of the subject. Results: This report describes little known advances in retinal physiology and pathology in Poland, as well as the development of two innovative instruments. In clinical ophthalmology Kramsztyk described circumpapillary cilioretinal anastomoses in central retinal artery occlusion; Bałłaban indicated that there is no spontaneous pulsation in central retinal vein occlusion; Ziemiński described independently the interesting patients with Eales' disease; Rumszewicz discussed diagnostic difficulties leading to erroneous enucleation in retinoblastoma suspected patients. The studies of Nikolski and Dogiel represented the third earliest good quality fundus photography. Szokalski designed a device for measuring retinal light sensitivity and Noiszewski an “electrophthalm”, which was supposed to convert the visual stimuli provided by bright and illuminated objects into tactile ones. Conclusions: Polish ophthalmologists made interesting observations and innovations in retinology, however, much of their work was not known to international ophthalmology because it was not translated into a foreign language. Usuń zaznaczone
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