OPEN Repository

Welcome to OPEN - the Repository of Open Scientific Publications, run by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw, previously operating as the CeON Repository. The Repository enables Polish researchers from all fields to openly share their articles, books, conference materials, reports, doctoral theses, and other scientific texts.

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22792 archived items

Recent Submissions

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Environmental, Climate, and Economic Aspects of Dairy Cow Farming
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, 2023) Józwiak, Wojciech; Mirkowska, Zofia; Sobierajewska, Jolanta; Zieliński, Marek; Ziętara, Wojciech; Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy
The aim of the research was to determine the significance of cattle farming (especially dairy cows) in the use of forage area, mainly permanent grassland, and its relationship with the natural environment in terms of greenhouse gas emissions (methane), water consumption, and biodiversity. The analysis concerned 1,823 dairy farms under observation of the Polish FADN between 2018 and 2020 and managed by natural persons. The following aspects were taken into account: production potential of farms, production and economic results, organization of plant and animal production depending on the structure of forage area determined by the share of permanent grassland in the area. It was found that the production potential of the dairy farms under consideration and their production and economic results were negatively correlated with increased share of permanent grassland in the forage area. It was also found that a higher share of permanent grassland in the forage area: meant a higher share of valuable nature area in the farm; was specifically correlated with the balance of organic matter in the soil; the balance was positive in all of the considered cases, i.e., they kept an increasing amount of water in the soil and increasing amounts of carbon dioxide each year; resulted in a significant increase in water consumption per 1 liter of milk produced, but the situation was related to increased share of permanent grassland in the forage area and lower milk yield of cows.
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Farms and Their Holders Implementing Agri-Environment-Climate Measures
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, 2023-06-28) Józwiak, Wojciech; Mirkowska, Zofia; Sobierajewska, Jolanta; Ziętara, Wojciech; Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy
The article contains characteristics of farms implementing agri-environment-climate measures in diverse natural conditions defined by the valorization index of agricultural production area. Considering the farm size, three types of the conditions were distinguished: difficult, average, and favorable. Attention was focused on the production potential of farms, their human capital, and economic situation. The subject of the research was a group of 1,175 individual farms covered by the Polish FADN, which implemented agri-environment-climate measures under the 2014–2020 common agricultural policy between 2018 and 2020. It was not a representative sample for the entire population of farms implementing the above-mentioned measures. Farms operating in difficult habitat conditions had a lower production potential (agricultural area, economic size, capital, and capital–labor ratio). The share of farmers with agricultural education was also lower in the group. As a result, income from such farms was lower, the fixed assets replacement rate was lower and the farm was incapable of competing on the domestic market. The ability was demonstrated only by farms functioning in favorable habitat conditions. The share of payments in the income of the analyzed farms was also higher, on average, by 21.7 p.p., as compared to the average share of payments in the income of other farms with a similar agricultural area. The study shows that there is a very large share of subsidie in the income of the groups of farms implemetnting agri-environment-climate measures and a clear positive connection between longer working hours (at least 2120 hours per year) of the farm manager with the economic situation of the farm.
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Adjustment processes in selected types of farms depending on their income situation
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - PIB, 2019) Józwiak, Wojciech; Mirkowska, Zofia; Sobierajewska, Jolanta; Zieliński, Marek; Ziętara, Wojciech; Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy
This article presents the development capacities of farms in groups divided according to the level of income from farm per unit of work of a farmer and farmer’s family members. According to the income criterion, farms were separated into: – auxiliary in which income from the farm per hour of family work input in the owned farm was lower than the level of payment for employed labour in agriculture; – transitional (“at the crossroads”) in which this income was higher than the level of payment for employed labour in agriculture, but lower than the rate of payment in the national economy; – developmental in which this income was equal to or higher than the rate of payment for labour in the national economy. The analysis covered types of farms specialised in: field crops, permanent crops, vegetable crops, dairy cattle raising, granivores raising, and mixed production. The source of research materials was the panel of farms covered by the monitoring of the Polish FADN in 2009-2016. Groups were separated according to the FADN methodology. The development capacities of the analysed farm groups were determined with the competitiveness index (CI). In the analysed period, the share of auxiliary farms was significant, ranging from 24.5% (dairy farms) to 43.1% (farms with mixed production). This share increased in subsequent periods. These farms did not have development capacities. The share of transitional farms was small, ranging from 8.5% (field crops) to 13% (with mixed production). Farms in this group also did not show developmental capacities. The share of developmental farms was quite varied, ranging from 44.4% (with mixed production) to 69% (with field crops). The applied criterion for the division of farms according to the level of income from farm per unit of work of a farmer and farmer’s family members increases the possibilities of their analysis.
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The level of labour profitability and development opportunities of farms in Poland
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - PIB, 2019) Józwiak, Wojciech; Sobierajewska, Jolanta; Zieliński, Marek; Ziętara, Wojciech; Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy
This article proposes the classification of farms of natural persons according to the level of farm income per unit of work of a farmer and farmer’s family members. One hour of family labour was adopted as such unit. According to this criterion, farms were divided into three classes. In the first one, the unit income is lower than the average payment for employed labour in agriculture. In the second one, this income is higher than the average payment for employed labour in agriculture but lower than the average payment for labour in the national economy. Farms of the third class allow earning income higher than the average payment for labour in the national economy. Those from the first class are called auxiliary farms, from the second – transitional, and from the third – developmental. The research included a panel of 5471 farms with economic size above EUR 4 thousand SO and covered by the monitoring of the Polish FADN in 2009-2017. The average share of auxiliary, transitional and developmental farms in the analysed period amounted to 31.2%, 12.1% and 56.5%, respectively. Auxiliary and transitional farms did not show the ability to develop. Developmental farms showed this ability. It was estimated on this basis that in 2016 there were 147.2 thousand of them in Poland, which means that the share of this group in the national population of farms owned by natural persons was 10.6%.
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Przedsiębiorstwo i gospodarstwo rolne wobec zmian klimatu i polityki rolnej (5)
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, 2019) Adamski, Marcin; Jarzębowski, Sebastian; Józwiak, Wojciech; Kagan, Adam; Mirkowska, Zofia; Skarżyńska, Aldona; Sobierajewska, Jolanta; Zieliński, Marek; Ziętara, Wojciech; Żekało, Marcin; Zieliński, Marek; Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy
Jest to ostatnia z serii pięciu publikacji poświęconych zachowaniu się krajowych przedsiębiorstw oraz gospodarstw rolnych w warunkach dyktowanych zachodzącymi zmianami klimatu i spodziewaną zmianą polityki rolnej, jaka może zajść w 2021 roku, a dalej – jej realizacją w kilku następnych latach. Rozdziały: Ograniczenia rozwoju i modernizacji gospodarstw oraz przedsiębiorstw rolnych. Ocena możliwości rozwojowych gospodarstw rolnych. Wielkoobszarowe gospodarstwa rolne w Polsce. Efektywność funkcjonowania gospodarstw i przedsiębiorstw rolnych - możliwości wzrostu efektywności produkcji w rolnictwie polskim. Geneza obszarów Natura 2000 w prawie międzynarodowym, ich charakterystyka w Polsce w ujęciu regionalnym, a także rola wybranych działań WPR 2014-2020 we wsparciu gospodarstw rolnych z tych obszarów. Produkcyjność czynników wytwórczych oraz efektywność produkcji wybranych produktów roślinnych. Ocena rezultatów produkcji wybranych dóbr rolniczych w gospodarstwach ekologicznych. Projekcja opłacalności uprawy zbóż i rzepaku w 2022r. Znaczenie gospodarstw rolnych w rozwoju krótkich łańcuchów dostaw żywności.