OPEN Repository

Welcome to OPEN - the Repository of Open Scientific Publications, run by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw, previously operating as the CeON Repository. The Repository enables Polish researchers from all fields to openly share their articles, books, conference materials, reports, doctoral theses, and other scientific texts.

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22792 archived items

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Item
Wages for Paid Labor, Farmers’ Own Labor Payment, and Production Efficiency in the Case of Polish Farms Classified by Types of Farming
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, 2022-03-28) Skarżyńska, Aldona; Abramczuk, Łukasz; Goławska, Monika; Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy
The aim of the research was to evaluate wages of wage earners and farmers’ own labor payment based on farm income in terms of various types of farming in Poland. The paper also examines the impact of subsidies on the payment of farmers’ own labor inputs and production efficiency. The research involved farms keeping accounting records, which were classified by the FADN methodology (TF8). The analysis uses standard results from 2010, 2015, and 2019 processed in the FADN EU system. Relatively low wages for wage earners were observed on farms specialized in permanent crops (EUR 2.12–2.76/hour) and horticulture (EUR 2.05–3.32/hour), and quite high on mixed farms (EUR 4.05–6.67/hour) and farms specialized in other grazing livestock (EUR 3.98–6.04/hour). Assuming wages for wage earners as the cost of one hour of farmers’ own labor, at the level of income without subsidies, farmers’ own labor was fully paid only on farms specialized in horticulture and granivores, as well as in 2010 and 2015 on farms specialized in permanent crops. On the other hand, income with subsidies ensured full payment of farmers’ own labor on farms specialized in horticulture and granivores; in 2010 on farms specialized in field crops, as well as in 2010 and 2015 on farms specialized in permanent crops and dairy cows. In the remaining cases (i.e., types and years), farmers’ own labor inputs were partially paid (from 22.2 to 96.9%). The research concerned commercial farms with market-oriented production. However, there are also farms in Poland, which are not so closely linked with market, therefore their economic situation may be much worse. As a consequence, their opportunities to generate income and pay for farmers’ own labor can be limited
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Unit costs and income from selected products in 2017 – research results in the agrokoszty system
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - PIB, 2019) Skarżyńska, Aldona; Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy
The main objective of the research was to present in 2017 the production and economic results of sweet lupine, fodder pea, field beans, soybean, cow's milk and beef cattle depending on the scale of their production. Research was held at commercial farms, which sell their production. These farms are enterprises. These farms were deliberately selected from a representative farm sample that was in the field of observation of the Polish FADN system. Data describing the researched agricultural products were collected in the AGROKOSZTY system, and then supplemented with data from the Polish FADN database. The results of products were influenced by production capacity of farms, i.e. resources of land, labour and capital, their quality and the manner of use, but they were also dependent on external conditions (e.g. market, weather). These impacts resulted in varying degrees of changes in the volume of production, unit costs and price of products. In 2017, the income from the surveyed agricultural products was within fairly wide limits. The positive impact of the size of the production scale was visible, although it appeared at various levels of analysis. Studies have shown that income without subsidies has ensured all plant products and milk production. On the other hand, the production of beef cattle on average in the research sample and on average in the separated ranges of the production scale was unprofitable. However, in each group there were farms in which the beef cattle production was profitable. It was mainly due to lower production costs.
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Economic size and production efficiency of farms specializing in field crops in Poland
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - PIB, 2019) Skarżyńska, Aldona; Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy
The article presents the economic results and production efficiency for farms specializing in field crops classified by economic size classes. The FADN UE data from 2010 and 2015 were used for the analysis. The income from the farm was a measure of the economic situation. The assessment of production efficiency was carried out at the production and technical level, the profitability of current assets as well as the cost consumption and economic efficiency of production were examined. The debt of farms was also analyzed. Income from the farm without subsidies for operating activities in economic size classes 1-5 successively increased, while for farms in the sixth class there was a strong decline in it, as a result income was a negative value. In 2010, the subsidies covered the loss on production and ensured a certain amount of income, while in 2015 the loss was only partially covered (in 95%). The highest income without subsidies per 1 ha of arable land was obtained on farms from the third and fourth economic size classes (in 2010: EUR 267 and EUR 201, respectively, in 2015 – EUR 161 and EUR 193). Farm production in the third and fourth classes also stand out in terms of production efficiency, while in sixth class of farms, the efficiency was the lowest. Together with the increase in the economic size of farms, their debt increased. In all groups, the liabilities were mostly long-term loans, but its smallest share was found in the sixth class of farms. This means that significant funds were allocated to finance the current operations of these farms.
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Unit costs and income from selected products in 2018: research results in the agrokoszty system
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - PIB, 2020) Skarżyńska, Aldona; Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy
The main objective of the research was to assess the production and economic results of winter wheat, rye, spring barley, grain maize, winter oilseed rape and sugar beets in 2018 depending on the scale of their cultivation. The research was conducted on commercial farms, which sell their production. These farms were purposively selected from a representative farm sample that was in the field of observation of the Polish FADN system. Data describing the studied agricultural products were collected in the AGROKOSZTY system, and then supplemented with data from the Polish FADN database. The results of the analysed products were influenced by production capacity of farms, i.e. resources of land, labour and capital, their quality and the manner of use, but they were also dependent on external conditions (e.g. market, weather). These impacts resulted in varying degrees of changes in the volume of production, unit costs and price of products. In 2018, the income from the surveyed agricultural products was within fairly wide limits. However, the positive impact of the size of the production scale was visible. In each group, there were farms where production was unprofitable, but in the case of large-scale cultivation, the percentage of farms with an indicator below 100 was always the smallest (the only exception was sugar beet).
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Influence of scale size on the profitability of cow’s milk production
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - PIB, 2020) Skarżyńska, Aldona; Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy
The issue of profitability of the agricultural production is often discussed within the framework of the problems of agricultural economics. The study showed a diversification in the profitability of the milk production depending on the cow herd’s size and identified the main determinants of positive economic results. The studies were conducted on commodity farms, which have been grouped according to the production scale, the criterion of scale was the number of dairy cows in the herd. Three scale ranges have been identified, i.e. small, medium and large. The data of 2014 and 2017 was used for the analysis. What was examined was the effectiveness of feeding cows in the identified farm groups and the technical and economic efficiency of the milk production. The full costs of the milk production (i.e. economic costs) were assessed and income from management activity was calculated. The results of the analyses show that as the number of cows in the herd increases, their milk yield and the price of milk are increasing. Farms with a large number of cows in the herd incurred the lowest full costs of the milk production, while obtaining the highest income from management activity per 1 cow and per 1 litre of milk. The measure of the milk production’s economic efficiency was the profitability index (revenues-to-economic costs ratio), the highest was recorded for the large-scale milk production, for the small scale this index did not exceed the profitability threshold.