OPEN Repository

Welcome to OPEN - the Repository of Open Scientific Publications, run by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw, previously operating as the CeON Repository. The Repository enables Polish researchers from all fields to openly share their articles, books, conference materials, reports, doctoral theses, and other scientific texts.

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Efficiency of Live Pig Production Depending on the Type of Rearing
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, 2023-12-22) Bocian, Monika; Ziętara, Wojciech; Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy
The main goal of the analysis is to determine the efficiency of various types of pig farming. The article presents a drastic decline in the number pigs and pig farms in Poland in recent years. The effect of the changes was reduced self-sufficiency in the production of live pigs. In terms of a decline in the domestic supply of live pigs, there was an increase in imports, mainly of weaners for further fattening. In addition to the dominant closed live pig production system, an open and mixed production system can also be distinguished. Imported weaners constituted the basis for the open farm system, which was conducted in two ways: at farmer’s own cost and contract rearing. The study material consisted of data from Statistics Poland and Farm Accountancy Data Network. The tabular analysis method and correlation indicators were used. The analysis of the efficiency of live pig production under a closed and open farm systems showed that the most effective was a closed system on a larger scale (sales of a minimum of 400–700 fattened pigs per year). The open farm system at farmer’s own cost provided higher income than contract fattening, which guaranteed satisfactory income. However, the open system at farmer’s own cost requires producers to have their own capital to purchase weaners and feed. Obtaining higher income involves greater risk. It was concluded that contract fattening is advisable for producers who have buildings suitable for fattening but who do not have their own funds and are not willing to take risk.
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Environmental, Climate, and Economic Aspects of Dairy Cow Farming
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, 2023) Józwiak, Wojciech; Mirkowska, Zofia; Sobierajewska, Jolanta; Zieliński, Marek; Ziętara, Wojciech; Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy
The aim of the research was to determine the significance of cattle farming (especially dairy cows) in the use of forage area, mainly permanent grassland, and its relationship with the natural environment in terms of greenhouse gas emissions (methane), water consumption, and biodiversity. The analysis concerned 1,823 dairy farms under observation of the Polish FADN between 2018 and 2020 and managed by natural persons. The following aspects were taken into account: production potential of farms, production and economic results, organization of plant and animal production depending on the structure of forage area determined by the share of permanent grassland in the area. It was found that the production potential of the dairy farms under consideration and their production and economic results were negatively correlated with increased share of permanent grassland in the forage area. It was also found that a higher share of permanent grassland in the forage area: meant a higher share of valuable nature area in the farm; was specifically correlated with the balance of organic matter in the soil; the balance was positive in all of the considered cases, i.e., they kept an increasing amount of water in the soil and increasing amounts of carbon dioxide each year; resulted in a significant increase in water consumption per 1 liter of milk produced, but the situation was related to increased share of permanent grassland in the forage area and lower milk yield of cows.
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Farms and Their Holders Implementing Agri-Environment-Climate Measures
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, 2023-06-28) Józwiak, Wojciech; Mirkowska, Zofia; Sobierajewska, Jolanta; Ziętara, Wojciech; Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy
The article contains characteristics of farms implementing agri-environment-climate measures in diverse natural conditions defined by the valorization index of agricultural production area. Considering the farm size, three types of the conditions were distinguished: difficult, average, and favorable. Attention was focused on the production potential of farms, their human capital, and economic situation. The subject of the research was a group of 1,175 individual farms covered by the Polish FADN, which implemented agri-environment-climate measures under the 2014–2020 common agricultural policy between 2018 and 2020. It was not a representative sample for the entire population of farms implementing the above-mentioned measures. Farms operating in difficult habitat conditions had a lower production potential (agricultural area, economic size, capital, and capital–labor ratio). The share of farmers with agricultural education was also lower in the group. As a result, income from such farms was lower, the fixed assets replacement rate was lower and the farm was incapable of competing on the domestic market. The ability was demonstrated only by farms functioning in favorable habitat conditions. The share of payments in the income of the analyzed farms was also higher, on average, by 21.7 p.p., as compared to the average share of payments in the income of other farms with a similar agricultural area. The study shows that there is a very large share of subsidie in the income of the groups of farms implemetnting agri-environment-climate measures and a clear positive connection between longer working hours (at least 2120 hours per year) of the farm manager with the economic situation of the farm.
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Beyond the Black Box: Towards a Systems Theory of Farming Family and Family Farm
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, 2022-03-28) Pietrzak, Michał; Ziętara, Wojciech; Szkoła Główna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego w Warszawie; Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy
The aim of this article is to present the need for a view of a family farm that is complementary to neoclassical economics and outline the framework concepts on which the future systems theory of family farms could be based. The article is a conceptual overview. The paper presents the development of economics and organization of farms. It was emphasized that in addition to the analytical approach, which today fits into the neoclassical mainstream of economic thought, the organic approach, which is related to the contemporary systems approach, was also important in the discipline. The authors presented two trends considered to be the foundation of the target theory of family farms: systems thinking and new institutional economics. An outline of the concept of a new approach to family farms is presented as a systemic whole connecting the family and its household involved in agricultural production, with the possibility of reducing internal transaction costs (agency costs) being an important attribute of this whole. Family farms still remain the predominant form of agricultural activity in Poland, Europe, and other continents. The family nature of the entities creates their specificity both in terms of goals and behaviors, which is difficult to reduce to the neoclassical model of firm, which seeks to maximize profits. What is needed is a holistic, systems approach complementary to the predominant neoclassical approach, considering close relations between the family and the agricultural production unit.
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Adjustment processes in selected types of farms depending on their income situation
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - PIB, 2019) Józwiak, Wojciech; Mirkowska, Zofia; Sobierajewska, Jolanta; Zieliński, Marek; Ziętara, Wojciech; Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy
This article presents the development capacities of farms in groups divided according to the level of income from farm per unit of work of a farmer and farmer’s family members. According to the income criterion, farms were separated into: – auxiliary in which income from the farm per hour of family work input in the owned farm was lower than the level of payment for employed labour in agriculture; – transitional (“at the crossroads”) in which this income was higher than the level of payment for employed labour in agriculture, but lower than the rate of payment in the national economy; – developmental in which this income was equal to or higher than the rate of payment for labour in the national economy. The analysis covered types of farms specialised in: field crops, permanent crops, vegetable crops, dairy cattle raising, granivores raising, and mixed production. The source of research materials was the panel of farms covered by the monitoring of the Polish FADN in 2009-2016. Groups were separated according to the FADN methodology. The development capacities of the analysed farm groups were determined with the competitiveness index (CI). In the analysed period, the share of auxiliary farms was significant, ranging from 24.5% (dairy farms) to 43.1% (farms with mixed production). This share increased in subsequent periods. These farms did not have development capacities. The share of transitional farms was small, ranging from 8.5% (field crops) to 13% (with mixed production). Farms in this group also did not show developmental capacities. The share of developmental farms was quite varied, ranging from 44.4% (with mixed production) to 69% (with field crops). The applied criterion for the division of farms according to the level of income from farm per unit of work of a farmer and farmer’s family members increases the possibilities of their analysis.