OPEN Repository

Welcome to OPEN - the Repository of Open Scientific Publications, run by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw, previously operating as the CeON Repository. The Repository enables Polish researchers from all fields to openly share their articles, books, conference materials, reports, doctoral theses, and other scientific texts.

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Recent Submissions

Technical efficiency of farms in Poland according to their sizes and types
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - PIB, 2019) Kagan, Adam; Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy
The article presents technical efficiency of the use of production resources for the research sample of the Polish FADN, representing the general population of agricultural holdings, representing over 90% of domestic commercial production. The impact of the size of activity measured by the utilised agricultural area and standard output (economic size), and of the production type on the efficiency was examined. In all cases, non-linear relationships were found, and the technical efficiency curve for grouping characteristics based on the size of the activity took the U shape. Therefore, deviations from the shape of these relations observed in numerous studies may result not only from the selection of the measurement method, but also from the lack of representativeness for the entire agrarian structure of researched farms. Assessing the impact of production orientation on technical efficiency without taking into account the diversity of groups in terms of the size of activity, especially with different assignments to different classes of economic size, in many cases may lead to erroneous conclusions.
Identification of product groups recommended for trade on the food platform in terms of domestic and foreign turnover
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - PIB, 2019) Szczepaniak, Iwona; Ambroziak, Łukasz; Drożdż, Jadwiga; Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy
The electronic trading platform for agri-food products could improve the efficiency and effectiveness of food trade and strengthen Poland’s position on the global market. In Poland, there has been no such solution so far, hence the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development has taken the initiative to create an electronic trading platform called “Food Platform”. Its essence will consist in matching secure buy and sell transactions. The purpose of the paper is to identify groups of products recommended for trade on the Food Platform in terms of domestic and foreign turnover. The study identifies sectors of the Polish food industry, with the most significant share, and identified agricultural products that are particularly important for Polish agriculture. In other words, the agri-food sectors that could potentially deliver products to the sales platform were selected. Next, this selection was verified in terms of the possibility of trade activities on the world market. The analysis shows that the product groups recommended for trade on the Food Platform are: cereals, rapeseed, sugar, fruit and vegetables, milk, red meat and poultry meat, together with their preserves. The selection of specific products which may be the subject of commercial transactions on the sales platform will result from further detailed analyzes of individual agri-food markets.
Adjustment processes in selected types of farms depending on their income situation
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - PIB, 2019) Józwiak, Wojciech; Mirkowska, Zofia; Sobierajewska, Jolanta; Zieliński, Marek; Ziętara, Wojciech; Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy
This article presents the development capacities of farms in groups divided according to the level of income from farm per unit of work of a farmer and farmer’s family members. According to the income criterion, farms were separated into: – auxiliary in which income from the farm per hour of family work input in the owned farm was lower than the level of payment for employed labour in agriculture; – transitional (“at the crossroads”) in which this income was higher than the level of payment for employed labour in agriculture, but lower than the rate of payment in the national economy; – developmental in which this income was equal to or higher than the rate of payment for labour in the national economy. The analysis covered types of farms specialised in: field crops, permanent crops, vegetable crops, dairy cattle raising, granivores raising, and mixed production. The source of research materials was the panel of farms covered by the monitoring of the Polish FADN in 2009-2016. Groups were separated according to the FADN methodology. The development capacities of the analysed farm groups were determined with the competitiveness index (CI). In the analysed period, the share of auxiliary farms was significant, ranging from 24.5% (dairy farms) to 43.1% (farms with mixed production). This share increased in subsequent periods. These farms did not have development capacities. The share of transitional farms was small, ranging from 8.5% (field crops) to 13% (with mixed production). Farms in this group also did not show developmental capacities. The share of developmental farms was quite varied, ranging from 44.4% (with mixed production) to 69% (with field crops). The applied criterion for the division of farms according to the level of income from farm per unit of work of a farmer and farmer’s family members increases the possibilities of their analysis.
Food safety as a new science discipline
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - PIB, 2019) Kowalczyk, Stanisław; Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy
The article is dedicated to the complex processes of science development, especially the separation of new disciplines and sub-disciplines of knowledge. Its main aim is showing the process and conditions of separation of a new science discipline, which is food safety. Food safety as a new discipline of science is separated on the basis of the subject, i.e. the status of food in the area of its health characteristics and quality standards and the goal of protecting the life and health of consumers and their economic interests. Food safety, using the terminology of Kuhn, is currently at the stage of the so-called pre-paradigmatic period. It is characterized by the diversity of approaches to food safety, the scope of research and the used terminology. It should be emphasized, however, that recent years have brought even greater compliance, both from the representatives of institutional and author mainstream on the identity of food security, as a (sub)discipline of science. This applies, first of all, to the research area, which increasingly includes both, health and economic safety of food.
Private farming development in the context of preservation of soil ecosystem services
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - PIB, 2019) Wrzaszcz, Wioletta; Prandecki, Konrad; Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy
The issue of ecosystem services is a relatively new concept in economic theory. This is the concept considered problematic, due to the difficulty of defining the benefits provided to people by ecosystems and their measurement and valuation. Some of these services are strongly associated with soil. Soil is one of the basic environmental resources necessary to conduct agricultural production. It fulfills many of non-production functions and provides services that are essential to human existence. Based on the crucial classification developed by the United Nations, we attribute providing the following ecosystem services to soil: basic/supporting, provisioning, regulating and cultural. Variety of services which are produced by soil causes the need to pay more attention to its quality, which is to a large extent derived from agricultural practices. The assessment of agriculture in the context of the farms’ organization allows to determine whether the present profile of agricultural production is conducive to maintaining environmental services or whether it destabilizes environmental processes. What seems especially important from this perspective is highlighting the changes in agriculture over the years, in the context of their impact on the condition of the natural environment. The aim of the paper is to indicate changes taking place in agriculture in Poland relevant to soil ecosystem services. The study was based on public data of 2005, 2007, 2016 from the Statistics Poland (GUS), gathered in the Farms Structure Survey. The research covered all private farms in Poland from 1 ha of agricultural land in good agricultural and environmental conditions. The results have shown the dynamic development of agriculture in Poland after accession to the EU, although many of the observed changes can threaten soil ecosystem services. The progressive crop diversification, including the cultivation of winter species, nitrogen fixing crops and catch crops were assessed positively. Problematic issues were, on the one hand, the process of farms’ withdrawal from livestock production, on the other hand, increasing livestock production concentration.