OPEN Repository

Welcome to OPEN - the Repository of Open Scientific Publications, run by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw, previously operating as the CeON Repository. The Repository enables Polish researchers from all fields to openly share their articles, books, conference materials, reports, doctoral theses, and other scientific texts.

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Changes in Production Factor Relations and Their Determinants in Agriculture in Selected European Union Countries
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, 2023-12-22) Floriańczyk, Zbigniew; Rembisz, Włodzimierz; Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy
The article examines trends in changes in relations among three production factors (land, labor, and capital) in agriculture in the selected European Union countries. For the purpose, the assumptions regarding the direction and the mechanism of changes in the relations were verified empirically. It was assumed that the basis of the mechanism is the ratio of changes in factor productivity to changes in the prices (remuneration) of these factors. Trends in production factors were verified empirically using agricultural economic accounts as well as statistics on labor and land inputs in agriculture collected by Eurostat. The trends in changes in the relations among production factors correspond to the capitalintensive stage of growth in agriculture. A strong trend of decline in the labor factor in agriculture was demonstrated along with the reduction of land in the EU agriculture. The changes were accompanied by diversified involvement of the capital factor in agriculture. With a constant increase in the volume of agricultural production, there is a corresponding increase in the productivity of the production factors. The increase is the smallest in the case of the capital factor, because it performs not only a growth function, but also is a substitute for the decline in other factors. An increased productivity of the production factors is related to an increase in their remuneration reflected by an increase in their prices. The deviations from capital-intensive growth in agriculture observed in the empirical study indicate other factors influencing the remuneration of production factors in agriculture.
Efficiency of Live Pig Production Depending on the Type of Rearing
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, 2023-12-22) Bocian, Monika; Ziętara, Wojciech; Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy
The main goal of the analysis is to determine the efficiency of various types of pig farming. The article presents a drastic decline in the number pigs and pig farms in Poland in recent years. The effect of the changes was reduced self-sufficiency in the production of live pigs. In terms of a decline in the domestic supply of live pigs, there was an increase in imports, mainly of weaners for further fattening. In addition to the dominant closed live pig production system, an open and mixed production system can also be distinguished. Imported weaners constituted the basis for the open farm system, which was conducted in two ways: at farmer’s own cost and contract rearing. The study material consisted of data from Statistics Poland and Farm Accountancy Data Network. The tabular analysis method and correlation indicators were used. The analysis of the efficiency of live pig production under a closed and open farm systems showed that the most effective was a closed system on a larger scale (sales of a minimum of 400–700 fattened pigs per year). The open farm system at farmer’s own cost provided higher income than contract fattening, which guaranteed satisfactory income. However, the open system at farmer’s own cost requires producers to have their own capital to purchase weaners and feed. Obtaining higher income involves greater risk. It was concluded that contract fattening is advisable for producers who have buildings suitable for fattening but who do not have their own funds and are not willing to take risk.
Konkurencyjność polskich gospodarstw rolniczych z uwzględnieniem środowiska przyrodniczego i klimatu (II)
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, 2024) Zieliński, Marek; Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy
Głównym celem przeprowadzonych badań było określenie związku między naturalnymi warunkami gospodarowania a cechami osobowymi rolników, w tym ich wykształceniem i stopniem zaangażowania w pracę we własnym gospodarstwie, a także organizacją i wynikami produkcyjnymi oraz ekonomicznymi, które osiągają, z jednoczesnym uwzględnieniem wpływu sposobu gospodarowania na środowisko przyrodnicze. Badania obejmowały analizę danych panelowych gospodarstw objętych monitoringiem Polskiego FADN z lat 2018–2020. Badane gospodarstwa podzielono na grupy i dokonano charakterystyki ich potencjału produkcyjnego, kapitału ludzkiego, wyników produkcyjnych i ekonomicznych oraz wskaźników opisujących środowisko przyrodnicze i klimat. Niniejsza monografia dostarcza ważnych argumentów decydentom tworzącym politykę rolną, w której inaczej należałoby traktować gospodarstwa zapewniające bezpieczeństwo żywnościowe i produkujące intensywnie na obszarach korzystnych, a inaczej gospodarstwa pełniące w pierwszej kolejności funkcję środowiskową na obszarach niekorzystnych dla rozwoju produkcji rolniczej.
Direct and Indirect Consequences of the War in Ukraine for Polish Trade in Agri-Food Products
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, 2023) Bułkowska, Małgorzata; Bazhenova, Hanna; Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy; Instytut Europy Środkowej
The ongoing war in Ukraine is associated with a number of negative and long-term macroeconomic consequences for Poland and other countries both in the area of trade and maintaining supply chains, as well as the security of energy supplies. Many entities in the agri-food sector are affected by this impact. The aim of the article is to assess the effects of the war in Ukraine on Polish agri-food trade. The paper presents the production and trade potential of Ukraine, defines trends in Polish agri-food trade with Ukraine after February 24, 2022, and identifies the main effects for Polish agri-food trade resulting from the ongoing armed conflict in Ukraine. Several research methods were used in the article, ranging from a literature review and document analysis, through a statistical and descriptive method of production and trade data analysis, to competitiveness indices: the index of comparative advantages (RCA) and trade coverage ratio (TC). The research shows that in 2022 Polish imports of agri-food products from Ukraine increased almost three times in terms of value, as compared to 2021, reaching EUR 2.8 billion, which increased the competitive pressure on the internal market. It has also been proven that only part of agri-food products imported from Ukraine is subject to mutual Polish-Ukrainian competition on the EU market. This applies to products such as wheat, poultry meat, birds’ eggs, frozen fruit, but also highly processed food products, including confectionery and pastry. Further development of trade in agri-food products with Ukraine will be determined primarily by the situation at the front, the supply of goods for export, the possibility of exporting Ukrainian goods through the Black Sea ports, and the permeability of land solidarity routes. Data shows that in 2022 the yields of cereals, legumes, and oilseeds in Ukraine decreased by 34%, which should also translate into decreased exports.
Environmental, Climate, and Economic Aspects of Dairy Cow Farming
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, 2023) Józwiak, Wojciech; Mirkowska, Zofia; Sobierajewska, Jolanta; Zieliński, Marek; Ziętara, Wojciech; Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy
The aim of the research was to determine the significance of cattle farming (especially dairy cows) in the use of forage area, mainly permanent grassland, and its relationship with the natural environment in terms of greenhouse gas emissions (methane), water consumption, and biodiversity. The analysis concerned 1,823 dairy farms under observation of the Polish FADN between 2018 and 2020 and managed by natural persons. The following aspects were taken into account: production potential of farms, production and economic results, organization of plant and animal production depending on the structure of forage area determined by the share of permanent grassland in the area. It was found that the production potential of the dairy farms under consideration and their production and economic results were negatively correlated with increased share of permanent grassland in the forage area. It was also found that a higher share of permanent grassland in the forage area: meant a higher share of valuable nature area in the farm; was specifically correlated with the balance of organic matter in the soil; the balance was positive in all of the considered cases, i.e., they kept an increasing amount of water in the soil and increasing amounts of carbon dioxide each year; resulted in a significant increase in water consumption per 1 liter of milk produced, but the situation was related to increased share of permanent grassland in the forage area and lower milk yield of cows.