OPEN Repository

Welcome to OPEN - the Repository of Open Scientific Publications, run by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw, previously operating as the CeON Repository. The Repository enables Polish researchers from all fields to openly share their articles, books, conference materials, reports, doctoral theses, and other scientific texts.

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The role of economic integration for the functioning of Polish agricultural sector on the example of the Rural Development Program (RDP)
(“1 Decembrie 1918” University of Alba Iulia, Romania, 2017) Stępień, Sebastian; Polcyn, Jan; Poznań University of Economics and Business; Stanislaw Staszic University of Applied Sciences in Pila
The aim of the paper is to evaluate the Rural Development Program (as a part of Common Agricultural Policy of the EU) from the point of view of impact on the agri-food sector in Poland. An introduction to the analysis is the identification of structural changes in Polish agriculture under the conditions of integration with the European Union. The following step consists in the assessment of the RDP for 2004-2006 and 2007-2013. The final stage is an evaluation of the rural support in the current financial perspective. It is clear from the considerations that the RDP first set up the multiplying effects of investment expenditure (under modernization programs), thus increasing the efficiency of the use of production factors (mainly labor and land). Income support, in the form of funds for less-favored areas (and earlier as well as supplementary payments) has become an important accelerator of innovation, modernization and structural transformation processes in the countryside. The RDP resources (including structural pensions) also served the expected transformations of the agrarian structure. Finally, part of the money was used to reduce excessive employment in the agricultural sector (diversification, micro-enterprise development). The article is an overview of the topic literature and statistical data, as well as previous studies of one of the authors. . It uses elements of descriptive analysis, meta-analysis and deductive inference.
Population density in rural areas as a driver of the human capital development
(Aleksandras Stulginskis University, 2017) Polcyn, Jan; Czyżewski, Bazyli; Stanislaw Staszic University of Applied Sciences in Pila; Poznań University of Economics and Business
Rural areas are typically characterised by uneven access to education and the resulting varying levels of pupils’ educational attainment. The inefficiency of the education system may lead to a decreased level of human capital development in the society. It is therefore vital to identify the factors responsible for the inefficiency of the education system and take steps to mitigate their negative impact. The aim of the present study is to determine the relationship between the population density in rural areas, the pupils’ average level of examination performance and the educational value added. The analyses were based on the exam results achieved by lower secondary school-leavers in 1,372 rural communes between 2012 and 2014. The original intention was to include all rural communesin the analysis. However, due to the incompleteness of the data concerning some of the communes, they were eventually excluded from the study. The final sample for analysis consisted of about 58% of all rural communes in Poland. The communes were divided into classes, based on the criterion of population density. The objects under study were arranged in an ascending order according to the value of the population density variable, and then divided into four classes (class A contained 25% of communes with the highest population density). The classes thus defined were used as a qualitative predictor in the subsequently performed ANOVA test. As a next step, contrasts were determined by applying a simple contrast to the analysed classes of communes. The analyses revealed that the highest examination results were achieved in the communes with the highest population density, while the lowest examination results were found in the communes with the lowest population density. This dependence may be indicative of educational negligence at lower levels of education, in this particular case - at the stage of primary school. The results of the analyses point to the need for expanding the network of nursery schools. To address the above problem, financial support should be provided from the state budget to social initiatives aimed at increasing the access to nursery schools, e.g. by creating an appropriate system of subsidies for nursery schools run by both local governments and private entities.
Payments for public goods under the common agricultural policy versus market failures
(Aleksandras Stulginskis University, 2017) Polcyn, Jan; Czyżewski, Bazyli; Stępień, Sebastian; Stanislaw Staszic University of Applied Sciences in Pila; Poznań University of Economics and Business
In the reality of the marketplace, a situation often arises where an economic surplus (rent) achieved by agricultural producers is partly taken over by related non-agricultural sectors. In this sense the category of economic rent embraces market failures related to such factors as price flexibility, and thus represents an effect of the misallocation of resources in the agricultural sector. The question therefore arises of whether there exists a developmental model of agriculture in which such market failures would be reduced. Apparently the only coherent response to this need is action taken under the paradigm of sustainable agriculture. This type of model for the sector’s functioning is supported by the objectives of the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), including through support for the supply of public goods in rural areas. This article addresses the question of whether CAP payments for public goods are a desirable systemic solution serving to reduce market failures. It is hypothesised that the financing of activity relating to the supply of public goods lessens the negative impact of the “market treadmill”, since it reduces the unexpected outflows of economic surplus away from farms, caused by agricultural prices. To verify the hypothesis, a panel regression analysis was performed on three sets: the EU-15 countries, the EU-12 countries, and – within Poland – subsectors of farms from six standard output classes. The analysis covered the years 2004–2012. The results of the computations provided confirmation of the hypothesis. It may be stated that an increase in the level of payments for public goods, as a percentage of total subsidies to agriculture, leads on average to a reduction in the drainage of economic rents through prices. It was also found that the financing of public goods under the CAP is more effective in reducing market failures in the EU-15 countries than in the EU-12.
Europejski system kształcenia zawodowego - dyskusja nad możliwością poprawy efektywności
(Politechnika Koszalińska, 2017) Polcyn, Jan; Gawrysiak, Maciej; Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Zawodowa im. Stanisława Staszica w Pile
W artykule przedstawiono ocenę efektywności systemów kształcenia zawodowego, opartą na danych z lat 2010-2015 z bazy danych Eurostat. Poddano dyskusji proces rozwoju systemu szkolnictwa zawodowego (VET – vocational education and training) w Unii Europejskiej, wynikający z oczekiwań traktatu kopenhaskiego. W wyniku analizy graficznej i danych statystycznych charakterystyki europejskich standardów kształcenia VET autorzy opierając się na literaturze, doszli do wniosku, że nadal istnieją duże różnice pomiędzy tymi systemami, wynikające zarówno z tradycji i swego rodzaju bezwładności tych systemów edukacyjnych, jak i z braku jednoznacznego określenia cech o pozytywnym wpływie na wszystkie systemy. Celem niniejszego artykułu jest ocena głównych modeli pozyskiwania kwalifikacji zawodowych. Autorzy podjęli próbę określenia cech systemów kształcenia mających nie tylko pozytywny, ale i negatywny wpływ. Cechy te wymieniono w konkluzjach.
Correlations between institutional-political governance and economic governance in the context of sustainable development
(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Przyrodniczego w Poznaniu, 2017) Polcyn, Jan; Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Zawodowa im. Stanisława Staszica w Pile
In this paper, sustainable development is defined as an undisturbed process of steady growth within four areas, which are also referred to as governances: environmental, social, economic and institutional-political. When searching for factors stimulating sustainable development, it is important to identify correlations between individual governances. Data for the study were retrieved from the Eurostat website. Variables were assigned to individual governances and divided into stimuli and inhibitors according to the description of variables provided by Eurostat. The collected data were used to determine the synthetic measure of economic governance and synthetic measures for groups of variables defining institutional-political governance. Hellwig’s taxonomic measure was used as the research tool. This study made it possible to determine the econometric model indicating statistically significant correlations for two groups of variables selected from among five groups characteristic of institutional-political governance. The group of characteristics relating to coherence and efficiency policy and the group describing civil society (openness, participation and active citizenship) showed a statistically significant and positive direction of impact on economic governance in the analysed period.