OPEN Repository

Welcome to OPEN - the Repository of Open Scientific Publications, run by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw, previously operating as the CeON Repository. The Repository enables Polish researchers from all fields to openly share their articles, books, conference materials, reports, doctoral theses, and other scientific texts.

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Recent Submissions

Competitiveness, Productivity, and Efficiency of Farmers’ Cooperatives: Evidence from the Polish Dairy Industry
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, 2023) Pietrzak, Michał; Domagała, Joanna; Chlebicka, Aleksandra; Szkoła Główna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego w Warszawie
Cooperatives are key players in the dairy sector both globally and in Poland. Increasing pressure on the economic performance of dairy cooperatives poses questions about the drivers that shape their competitiveness. The aim of the paper is twofold. Firstly, the paper assesses the productivity and efficiency of dairy cooperatives and how these features evolved over time. Secondly, it examines whether and to what extent productivity and efficiency determine the competitiveness of entities under the study. As an empirical illustration, the authors use a dataset on dairy cooperatives operating in Poland, which is an important producer of dairy products in the European Union (EU). The results (obtained using partial productivity and data envelopment analysis) confirm that productivity and efficiency affect the competitiveness of dairy cooperatives. However, a primary contribution is to demonstrate that the relationship between productivity and efficiency versus competitiveness is more complex. Taking into account factors like the qualitative features of market offerings and their influence on consumer behaviur and satisfaction is essential for a thorough assessment of the competitiveness of dairy cooperatives.
Unlocking the Potential of the European Union Quality Schemes for Polish Regional and Traditional Food Products
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, 2023-06-28) Malak-Rawlikowska, Agata; Majewski, Edward; Kamińska, Izabella; Szkoła Główna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego w Warszawie; Inspekcja Jakości Handlowej Artykułów Rolno-Spożywczych
The main aim of the study was to identify current problems encountered by the Polish producers of products registered under the PDO, PGI, and TSG labels and develop a set of recommendations that may support the development of the market of FQS products in Poland. The study findings showed that many factors are disrupting the functioning of the Polish market of FQS products and are related to product specificities, market relevance, supply chain governance, legitimacy, and law enforcement. The majority of products is characterized by a low value added, which makes it difficult to distinguish them on the market and therefore protect against counterfeit. There are also products with greater value added, but the lack of farmers’ collective action reduces the potential effect that could result from the economy of scale. Furthermore, a limited number of certified producers and small cultivation areas constraint the use of effective marketing strategies, hindering producers’ ability to gain more visibility for their produce. Consequently, Polish FQS producers cannot create more profitable market niches, often selling their certified products at regular market prices without the expected price premium. Moreover, FQS labels are also not recognized well by consumers, which indicates a serious problem of information asymmetry in the value chain. In order to improve the FQS sales in Poland, a joint commitment of the public administration agencies and producers is necessary in terms of providing support to producers in the process of developing applications, introducing the system for monitoring FQS distribution and reporting counterfeits, creating an umbrella association of certified producers acting on behalf of all the participants of the system. Moreover, producers are encouraged to increase the scale of production, introduce common packaging and joint promotional activities, as well as joint sales and distribution in order to avoid producer–producer competition and to strengthen producers bargaining position in the food supply chain.
Determinants of Farmers’ Participation in the Production Insurance System
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, 2023-06-28) Rawa, Grzegorz Paweł; Szkoła Główna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego w Warszawie
Progressive climate change triggers off phenomena that threaten agricultural production. Crop insurance makes it possible to mitigate their effects, but only a small percentage of crops in Poland is insured. Previous research into the determinants of farmers participation in the production insurance system has mainly used the logit regression method. This paper presents the results of a study using a structural equation model (SEM) estimated for a sample of 600 farms in the FADN observation field, which aimed to identify factors influencing farmers’ purchase of production insurance. This research approach made it possible to describe the phenomenon in a way that has been little recognized so far, complementing the decision-making model under consideration with latent variables that could not be considered by the methods used so far. Based on the literature research, three unobservable variables were identified: willingness to purchase insurance, risk aversion and risk perception, and farming intensity, and then quantified using observable variables. The results show a directly proportional relationship between willingness to purchase insurance and risk aversion and risk perception and inversely proportional relationship with farming intensity.
Agriculture in the Peripheries – the Kingdom of Bhutan
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, 2022-09-29) Majewski, Edward; Sirsikar, Chaitra Girish; Szkoła Główna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego w Warszawie
The main aim of the paper is to familiarize the readers with the economy, and above all the agricultural sector of the Kingdom of Bhutan. The direct inspiration for this paper was the ban on cage breeding of laying hens introduced in this country in 2012, which brings to mind an important event, which happened in 1972, when the King of Bhutan announced the concept of the Gross National Happiness Index (GNH). Figures and graphics presented in the article were prepared on the basis of Bhutan’s national statistics and available publications. The structure of Bhutan’s economy is dominated by the industrial and services sectors. The share of agriculture in generating GDP has ranged from 14 to 22% in the last twenty years, with employment in agriculture reaching almost 60% of the total workforce. The agricultural sector is highly fragmented, and at the same time vulnerable to threats resulting from difficult natural conditions and climate change. Bhutan is not achieving food self-sufficiency, despite strong support from Bhutanese authorities for the sector and increasing productivity. The changes taking place in agriculture and the entire economy of Bhutan are strongly oriented towards the implementation of the sustainable development paradigm.
European Union Agri-Food Prices During COVID-19 and their Seleceted Determinants
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, 2022-06-28) Hamulczuk, Mariusz; Skrzypczyk, Marta; Szkoła Główna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego w Warszawie
The pandemic caused by the outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 virus has widespread socio-economic consequences worldwide. The implications of the COVID-19 crisis also include changes in production, consumption, trade, and agri-food commodity prices. This paper focuses on the repercussions of the COVID-19 crisis on producer and retail prices of agri-food commodities in European Union (EU) countries. The study is based on monthly producer and consumer food price indices in EU countries. In estimating the impact of COVID-19 on prices, actual price changes were compared with counterfactual figures derived from ex-post forecasts calculated according to regARIMA models. The study of the causes of price changes was based on both quantitative and qualitative approaches. In the quantitative approach, the impact of the strength of applied restrictions and the trade position of countries on the deviation of actual prices from the forecasts was examined. For this purpose, regression models based on cross-sectional data were applied. The results show that there is a quite significant variation in the dynamics of changes in agri-food commodity prices both among countries and across the marketing chain. A negative and statistically significant relationship has been found between country food self-sufficiency in the pre-COVID-19 period and changes in producer prices during the first phase of the COVID-19 crisis. In turn, the strength of stay-at-home restrictions was significant for retail price formation during the COVID-19 crisis. The general conclusion is that the responses of agri-food prices during the pandemic vary both spatially and over time.