OPEN Repository

Welcome to OPEN - the Repository of Open Scientific Publications, run by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw, previously operating as the CeON Repository. The Repository enables Polish researchers from all fields to openly share their articles, books, conference materials, reports, doctoral theses, and other scientific texts.

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Differentiation of Profitability of Traditional and Innovative Potatoes Cultivation in Poland
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, 2023-12-22) Maciejczak, Mariusz; Filipiak, Tadeusz; Gołębiewska, Barbara; Urbanowicz, Janusz; Osowski, Jerzy; Treder, Krzysztof; Warsaw University of Life Sciences; Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute National Research Institute
The aim of the research was to determine the costs and profitability of traditional and innovative potatoes cultivation in Poland. The experimental field trials of selected potato varieties in various variants were carried out between 2021 and 2022. The applied variants of experiments included potatoes cultivation according to traditional and innovative methods, i.e. in commercial conditions (high intensity of inputs and costs, including fertilization with mineral fertilizers and synthetic plant protection products) and in the absence of fertilization and plant protection, or only with the use of interaction with beneficial microorganisms. For economic calculations, there were applied methods of profitability of potatoes production for the evaluation of various production variants, calculation of production costs and assessment of production profit. The research material consisted of the results of field experiments carried out as part of the international PotatoMETAbiome project for 11 potato varieties and six variants of the experiment in fields located in the north of Poland. Based on the research, it was found that the average potatoes production costs in 2021 and 2022 decreased for traditional variants and increased for innovative variants. In 2021, the lowest production costs were for the variant without fertilization and plant protection products and innovative variants. In turn, in 2022, the lowest production costs were for traditional variants, i.e., with fertilization and protection, and without fertilization with protection, as well as with fertilization and without chemical protection, and without fertilization and without chemical protection. In all years under consideration and for all variants, potatoes cultivation was profitable. The potatoes production profitability ratios during the years under analysis decreased for innovative variants, while they increased for variants with intensive production. It was found that an innovative strategy of potatoes production with the use of beneficial microorganisms may be an economically justified alternative to changing production, market, and political conditions.
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Changes in Production Factor Relations and Their Determinants in Agriculture in Selected European Union Countries
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, 2023-12-22) Floriańczyk, Zbigniew; Rembisz, Włodzimierz; Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy
The article examines trends in changes in relations among three production factors (land, labor, and capital) in agriculture in the selected European Union countries. For the purpose, the assumptions regarding the direction and the mechanism of changes in the relations were verified empirically. It was assumed that the basis of the mechanism is the ratio of changes in factor productivity to changes in the prices (remuneration) of these factors. Trends in production factors were verified empirically using agricultural economic accounts as well as statistics on labor and land inputs in agriculture collected by Eurostat. The trends in changes in the relations among production factors correspond to the capitalintensive stage of growth in agriculture. A strong trend of decline in the labor factor in agriculture was demonstrated along with the reduction of land in the EU agriculture. The changes were accompanied by diversified involvement of the capital factor in agriculture. With a constant increase in the volume of agricultural production, there is a corresponding increase in the productivity of the production factors. The increase is the smallest in the case of the capital factor, because it performs not only a growth function, but also is a substitute for the decline in other factors. An increased productivity of the production factors is related to an increase in their remuneration reflected by an increase in their prices. The deviations from capital-intensive growth in agriculture observed in the empirical study indicate other factors influencing the remuneration of production factors in agriculture.
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Implementation of the User Innovation Model in Micro-, Small-, and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Food Processing Industry
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, 2023-12-22) Kuberska, Dominika; Grzybowska-Brzezińska, Mariola; Zachłowski, Patryk; University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn
The aim of the study was to identify the degree of implementation of the user innovation (UI) model in selected food processing industries in Poland and it was achieved through the following research objectives: (1) to identify the sources of information used in the course of innovation processes by innovative enterprises – divided into external and internal sources, (2) to determine to what extent users (consumers in particular) are involved in the course of individual stages of the innovation process, and (3) to compare the degree of consumer involvement in the course of innovation processes with the innovation level of innovative enterprises. Primary data was obtained through an interview method (a survey employing the CAWI method), conducted among 215 micro-, small-, and medium-sized enterprises in the meat processing, juice production, and milk processing industries. The time scope of the survey was 2018–2019 and the survey was conducted in mid-2021. Approximately two-thirds of innovative enterprises use information from consumers during the innovation process and consumers are involved to a different degree in its respective stages. Most often enterprises engage consumers during the stage of innovation impulse, creating and testing prototypes. A significant share of innovative enterprises uses information from consumers during the innovation process. The companies that reported the highest number of innovations were, to a large extent, those that involved consumers at more stages of the innovation process. The application of the UI model assumptions can be considered as conducive to shaping innovativeness of the analyzed food processing industries.
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Efficiency of Live Pig Production Depending on the Type of Rearing
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, 2023-12-22) Bocian, Monika; Ziętara, Wojciech; Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy
The main goal of the analysis is to determine the efficiency of various types of pig farming. The article presents a drastic decline in the number pigs and pig farms in Poland in recent years. The effect of the changes was reduced self-sufficiency in the production of live pigs. In terms of a decline in the domestic supply of live pigs, there was an increase in imports, mainly of weaners for further fattening. In addition to the dominant closed live pig production system, an open and mixed production system can also be distinguished. Imported weaners constituted the basis for the open farm system, which was conducted in two ways: at farmer’s own cost and contract rearing. The study material consisted of data from Statistics Poland and Farm Accountancy Data Network. The tabular analysis method and correlation indicators were used. The analysis of the efficiency of live pig production under a closed and open farm systems showed that the most effective was a closed system on a larger scale (sales of a minimum of 400–700 fattened pigs per year). The open farm system at farmer’s own cost provided higher income than contract fattening, which guaranteed satisfactory income. However, the open system at farmer’s own cost requires producers to have their own capital to purchase weaners and feed. Obtaining higher income involves greater risk. It was concluded that contract fattening is advisable for producers who have buildings suitable for fattening but who do not have their own funds and are not willing to take risk.
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Integration of Ukrainian Grain Markets with Foreign Markets During Russia’s Invasion of Ukraine
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, 2023-12-22) Hamulczuk, Mariusz; Cherevyk, Denys; Makarchuk, Oksana; Kuts, Tetyana; Voliak, Lesia; Warsaw University of Life Sciences; National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
The paper aims to evaluate the implications of the Russian-Ukrainian conflict for the strength and nature of the integration of Ukrainian grain markets with world markets. The empirical research is based on the theoretical foundations of spatial market integration and the spatial market equilibrium model. According to them, changes in the integration of Ukrainian and world wheat, corn, and barley markets are evaluated via fluctuations in trade flow volumes, changes in trade costs and price co-movement. To analyze trade implications, monthly trade flow volumes, trade shares, and trade concentration measures during the conflict were compared with expected values assuming no war. To evaluate the implications of the conflict for trade costs, the authors analyzed differences between Ukrainian and world grain prices. Relying on the weekly price series, the price co-movement was assessed using the autoregressive distributed lag model (ARDL) and Granger instantaneous causality test. The results show that the strength of the integration of Ukrainian grain markets with world markets has deteriorated due to the conflict. It is confirmed by the decrease in the grain export volumes from Ukraine, the increase in price differences, and the lack of significant price transmission between Ukrainian and global grain markets since the war outbreak in February 2022. Moreover, the nature of the market integration has changed. One can observe a growing role of the European Union countries in the Ukrainian grain export share and changes in the Ukrainian grain export concentration. Such behaviour is in line with the theoretical foundation of the spatial market equilibrium model and theory of international integration.