OPEN Repository

Welcome to OPEN - the Repository of Open Scientific Publications, run by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw, previously operating as the CeON Repository. The Repository enables Polish researchers from all fields to openly share their articles, books, conference materials, reports, doctoral theses, and other scientific texts.

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22799 archived items

Recent Submissions

Informal Economy and Agricultural Productivity in Bangladesh: A Time Series Analysis
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, 2023) Saha, Subrata; Saha, Sanjoy Kumar; Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Bangladesh
The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between the informal economy and agricultural productivity in Bangladesh over a 25-year period from 1993 to 2018. While the impact of the black market on the economy is a well-studied topic, its implications for the agricultural sector in this specific country context was less explored. By controlling structural transformation, trade, and foreign direct investment (FDI) in agriculture, the authors employ autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) using Kripfganz and Schneider’s (2018) approximations, as well as fully modified ordinary least square (FMOLS) and feasible generalized least square (FGLS) techniques. The results reveal that informality initially hampers agricultural productivity in the short term due to reduced government revenue, but in the long run, it acts as an active social protection system, fostering informal employment and providing essential amenities. Although the study’s time span limits the investigation to this specific period, it serves as a crucial attempt to assess the impact of informality on agriculture in Bangladesh, highlighting the need for cautious consideration of both the benefits and drawbacks of the informal sector in enhancing agricultural productivity. Policymakers in Bangladesh should act cautiously, acknowledging the nuances of the informal sector’s influence on agriculture to leverage its potential for sustainable economic growth.
Direct and Indirect Consequences of the War in Ukraine for Polish Trade in Agri-Food Products
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, 2023) Bułkowska, Małgorzata; Bazhenova, Hanna; Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy; Instytut Europy Środkowej
The ongoing war in Ukraine is associated with a number of negative and long-term macroeconomic consequences for Poland and other countries both in the area of trade and maintaining supply chains, as well as the security of energy supplies. Many entities in the agri-food sector are affected by this impact. The aim of the article is to assess the effects of the war in Ukraine on Polish agri-food trade. The paper presents the production and trade potential of Ukraine, defines trends in Polish agri-food trade with Ukraine after February 24, 2022, and identifies the main effects for Polish agri-food trade resulting from the ongoing armed conflict in Ukraine. Several research methods were used in the article, ranging from a literature review and document analysis, through a statistical and descriptive method of production and trade data analysis, to competitiveness indices: the index of comparative advantages (RCA) and trade coverage ratio (TC). The research shows that in 2022 Polish imports of agri-food products from Ukraine increased almost three times in terms of value, as compared to 2021, reaching EUR 2.8 billion, which increased the competitive pressure on the internal market. It has also been proven that only part of agri-food products imported from Ukraine is subject to mutual Polish-Ukrainian competition on the EU market. This applies to products such as wheat, poultry meat, birds’ eggs, frozen fruit, but also highly processed food products, including confectionery and pastry. Further development of trade in agri-food products with Ukraine will be determined primarily by the situation at the front, the supply of goods for export, the possibility of exporting Ukrainian goods through the Black Sea ports, and the permeability of land solidarity routes. Data shows that in 2022 the yields of cereals, legumes, and oilseeds in Ukraine decreased by 34%, which should also translate into decreased exports.
Organic Farming in the European Union in the Face of the Challenges of Sustainable Consumption
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, 2023) Szubska-Włodarczyk, Natalia; Uniwersytet Łódzki
The aim of the study is to present the link between organic farming and sustainable consumption in the light of the European Green Deal strategy (EGD). The article discusses whether the increase in the supply of organic food and the solutions proposed in the strategy will contribute to the spread ofsustainable consumption. The article was prepared based on a critical analysis of the literature based on available statistical data, strategic documents, and scientific studies. The paper uses desk research and secondary data from Eurostat, FAOStat, and IFOAM for European Union countries (EU) between 2014 and 2020. It has been found that the implementation of the principles of sustainable consumption through organic farming requires action to increase consumers’ confidence in organic food products. The credibility of organic farming must be built at every stage of the supply chain. From the perspective of achieving the principles of sustainable consumption and production through the development of organic farming, it is important to ensure a reliable certification system at every stage of the supply chain and labeling that takes into account detailed information about the product. Public procurement, which could generate sustainable demand for organic food products, is the development opportunity for organic farming. The analysis showed that the actions and tools identified in the European Green Deal strategy, within the framework of the three main priorities, appear to be legitimate and crucial for the development of organic agriculture and market for organic food products.
Environmental, Climate, and Economic Aspects of Dairy Cow Farming
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, 2023) Józwiak, Wojciech; Mirkowska, Zofia; Sobierajewska, Jolanta; Zieliński, Marek; Ziętara, Wojciech; Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy
The aim of the research was to determine the significance of cattle farming (especially dairy cows) in the use of forage area, mainly permanent grassland, and its relationship with the natural environment in terms of greenhouse gas emissions (methane), water consumption, and biodiversity. The analysis concerned 1,823 dairy farms under observation of the Polish FADN between 2018 and 2020 and managed by natural persons. The following aspects were taken into account: production potential of farms, production and economic results, organization of plant and animal production depending on the structure of forage area determined by the share of permanent grassland in the area. It was found that the production potential of the dairy farms under consideration and their production and economic results were negatively correlated with increased share of permanent grassland in the forage area. It was also found that a higher share of permanent grassland in the forage area: meant a higher share of valuable nature area in the farm; was specifically correlated with the balance of organic matter in the soil; the balance was positive in all of the considered cases, i.e., they kept an increasing amount of water in the soil and increasing amounts of carbon dioxide each year; resulted in a significant increase in water consumption per 1 liter of milk produced, but the situation was related to increased share of permanent grassland in the forage area and lower milk yield of cows.
Competitiveness, Productivity, and Efficiency of Farmers’ Cooperatives: Evidence from the Polish Dairy Industry
(Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, 2023) Pietrzak, Michał; Domagała, Joanna; Chlebicka, Aleksandra; Szkoła Główna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego w Warszawie
Cooperatives are key players in the dairy sector both globally and in Poland. Increasing pressure on the economic performance of dairy cooperatives poses questions about the drivers that shape their competitiveness. The aim of the paper is twofold. Firstly, the paper assesses the productivity and efficiency of dairy cooperatives and how these features evolved over time. Secondly, it examines whether and to what extent productivity and efficiency determine the competitiveness of entities under the study. As an empirical illustration, the authors use a dataset on dairy cooperatives operating in Poland, which is an important producer of dairy products in the European Union (EU). The results (obtained using partial productivity and data envelopment analysis) confirm that productivity and efficiency affect the competitiveness of dairy cooperatives. However, a primary contribution is to demonstrate that the relationship between productivity and efficiency versus competitiveness is more complex. Taking into account factors like the qualitative features of market offerings and their influence on consumer behaviur and satisfaction is essential for a thorough assessment of the competitiveness of dairy cooperatives.