OPEN Repository

Welcome to OPEN - the Repository of Open Scientific Publications, run by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw, previously operating as the CeON Repository. The Repository enables Polish researchers from all fields to openly share their articles, books, conference materials, reports, doctoral theses, and other scientific texts.

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22799 archived items

Recent Submissions

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„Humanizacja wojny” Ograniczanie możliwości użycia niektórych broni w konflikcie zbrojnym w kontekście norm etycznych
(Towarzystwo Doktorantów UJ, 2017) Pochylska, Anna; Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Studiów Międzynarodowych, Uniwersytet Warszawski
Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie ograniczeń w stosowaniu wybranych środków prowadzenia działań w konfliktach zbrojnych na gruncie prawa międzynarodowego, u podstaw których leżą normy etyczne. W opracowaniu przeprowadzono analizę dopuszczalności użycia siły między państwami w świetle różnych podejść i teorii w nauce o stosunkach międzynarodowych. Przedstawione zostały uregulowania prawne wprowadzające restrykcje w wykorzystaniu z pewnych narzędzi walki. Ponadto, opisano problemy oraz wątpliwości natury moralnej związane z rozwojem nowoczesnych technologii wojskowych, opierających swe działanie na zdobyczach z dziedziny automatyki i robotyki, które dotyczą w szczególności próby wyeliminowania z pola walki czynnika ludzkiego.
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Dopuszczalność zabijania w obronie własnej w świetle stanowiska Judith Jarvis Thomson
(Towarzystwo Doktorantów UJ, 2017) Bednarz, Gabriel; Wydział Filologiczny, Uniwersytet Jagielloński
Zagadnienie wskazane w tytule mojego artykułu posiada swoje źródło w definicyjnym określeniu osoby postronnej zaproponowanym przez Judith Jarvis Thomson w tekście Obrona własna. Ma więc ono charakter analityczny. Thomson, filozofka moralności i reprezentantka nurtu analitycznego, jest znana głównie z tekstów naukowych w obronie aborcji, a także ze swojego stanowiska nieuwzględniającego szczególnych uprawnień niektórych jednostek (uprawnień typu agent-relative). Celem artykułu jest wskazanie trudności w rozstrzygnięciu na gruncie stanowiska Thomson, czy w pewnym prawdopodobnym i problematycznym przypadku osoba, której życie jest zagrożone, ma prawo do obrony własnej. W tekście nazywam ten przypadek Człowiekiem Śpiącym. Pokazuję jego możliwe problematyczne konsekwencje, które jak wykazuję na końcu artykułu, dotyczą również głównej sytuacji przedstawionej w Obronie aborcji.
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Zagadnienie relatywizmu w myśli Charlesa Taylora
(Towarzystwo Doktorantów UJ, 2011) Moskulak, Martyna; Uniwersytet Jagielloński
In my paper I am going to examine one of the most interesting issues concerning Charles Taylor’s ethical reflection, which is the notion of relativism. The goal of this article is to present the topic in the context of an actual debate on the current condition of Western society in the age of pluralism. In this debate, Taylor fulfils the role of an important commentator on contemporary social phenomena and a narrator of the complexity of processes which are standing behind them. The notion which I particularly pay attention to is soft relativism. This notion describes the attitude expressed by the firm conviction that we should allow others to do what they please, and do not criticize their beliefs. The notion of soft relativism is related to the distorted forms of individualism. Opposite the basic moral intuition that we can reasonably talk about ideals, stands a moral prohibition questioning other people’s values. Another dimension of the problem of relativism is the diversity of views, cultures, religion and origins that exist within a community. Taylor presents his own approach to pluralism and tolerance, referring to the various positions in the past and the present. The article consists of an introduction, a conclusion and five consecutive parts. The introduction provides a brief description of Charles Taylor’s philosophy. Part I sets out to establish the specificity of the philosopher as a third way thinker. Part II is a preliminary presentation of soft relativism. Part III refers to the ethical basis of relativism and touches upon the issue of individualism. Part IV presents a polemic between Taylor and a sociologist Allan Bloom and shows interiorization as a means of moral coexistence. Part V concerns the issue of relativism on the ground of culture; it presents Taylor’s position in the view of the politics of difference and universalism. The conclusion leaves several questions open for further exploration of the topic.
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Pojęcie cnoty w etyce Antystenesa z Aten
(Towarzystwo Doktorantów UJ, 2011) Kostyra, Maciej; Uniwersytet Warszawski
In this paper the author introduces and develops the philosophical concept of “Socratic strength” and briefly discusses the hierarchy of goods to emphasize the difference between Socratic, Cynic and Stoic notions of virtue. A theoretical gap involving the Cynics in Plato’s Euthydem is crucial to the understanding of the origin and development of ancient Cynicism. Socrates did not fully justify why one should pursue any external things. This made the Cynics consider virtue to be the only good. To overcome a counter-cultural dimension of Cynicism the Stoics developed a theory of external things worth being chosen.
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Pomiędzy racjonalizmem a sentymentalizmem. Rozważania dotyczące norm etycznych odnośnie zwierząt
(Towarzystwo Doktorantów UJ, 2013) Wrona, Barbara; Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
Professor Maria Ossowska classified relation of people to animals as a moral norm in the defense of our biological existence. People who promote respect for animal life develop a principles-oriented attitude towards animal experimentation and question animal husbandry and humane killing. Reffering to Plutarch she explained that probably the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals‟ is not aware of the fact that they should establish him as their patron. In 1990 Ija Lazari-Pawłowska gave a lecture during the National Symposium of Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. In that lecture, The animal is not a thing, she clearly stated that the human concern for the lives of animals should result from thinking about their well-being not from people‟s benefit. The animal is not a person, but it is not a thing. She opted for compassion, referring to A. Schweitzer and his ethical principle of reverence for life according to which a human being should be responsible for all living things. She hoped for the implementation of legal regulations allowing law to become a source of enforcement of animal rights, defined as generally applicable minimum standards. Lazari-Pawłowska also relied on the views of Gandhi. He systematized his ideas in Ethic Ghandi books. Ahimsa postulate (or the principle of „do no evil‟) is the basis for her discussion, not only in relation to the human world but also to the world of animals. Gandhi, who apart from A. Schweitzer was the inspiration for Professor Lazari- -Pawłowska, believed that killing animals for food is necessary for people. Ghandi thought highly of vegetarianism, and the supporters of animal rights.According to professor Tadeusz Kotarbiński people who take care of prosperity and well-being of other human beings are defined as “reasonably minded”, but the attempts to save animals from cruel people are called “sentimentalism” (one of his texts which brand animal crueltyis called “Meditation on the Sentimental”). Rights existing in nature are strict and absolute, and they are not shameful, which is a part of nature – attitude which is devoid of sentimentality is immoral. Attempts to human return to the “jungle” (primitive behavior) are an unsuccessful escapade.